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                                  Tips & Techniques

                                  Useful information for successful wood projects.

                                  Helpful Wood Finishing Terms

                                  A

                                  Ambering - The tendency of a clear protective finish to take on a warm, yellow appearance as it ages.

                                  B

                                  Bleeding/Bleedback - A staining phenomenon occurring when the stain seeps back to the surface of the wood.

                                  Brush Marks - Lines or ridges left by the brush and dried in the finish.

                                  E

                                  End Grain - The wood surface exposed when a board is cut across the grain, opening the elongated pores so that they absorb more liquid than the other parts of the board.

                                  F

                                  Ferrule - The metal band used to hold the bristles to the handle of a brush.

                                  Flagging - Tips of bristles that have been intentionally split to carry more liquid from the can to the wood.

                                  G

                                  Gloss - A surface shininess or sheen, ranging from satin to semi-gloss to high gloss.

                                  Grain - The arrangement or direction of the fibers in wood.

                                  Graining - A technique that uses stain to duplicate the grain pattern of a type of wood on a non-wood surface.

                                  Grain Raising - A condition that occurs on the surface of wood when its fibers absorb water, causing them to stand, and giving the wood a rough surface.

                                  Grit - The numbering system that reflects the relative coarseness of the abrasive particles on sandpaper. Lower grit numbers indicate coarse abrasives; higher grit numbers, finer abrasives.

                                  H

                                  Hardwood - Wood that comes from broad-leafed trees, such as oak, walnut and maple.

                                  K

                                  Knot - The hard cross-grained mass of wood that forms where a tree branch meets the trunk. In a sawn board, it is darker and harder than the surrounding wood.

                                  L

                                  Lacquer - A clear or pigmented protective coating, formulated with cellulosic or synthetic resins to dry by evaporation, forming a solid film.

                                  Leveling - The "flowing out" of a freshly applied finish, during which brush marks disappear.

                                  M

                                  Mineral Spirits - A distillation product of petroleum used as a thinner for oil-based paints, varnishes and stains.

                                  O

                                  Oil-Based - A stain or clear protective finish comprised of resins dispersed or dissolved in a solvent such as alcohol or mineral spirits.

                                  Overspray - Finish, propelled by aerosol cans that lands and dries on surfaces other than the target.

                                  P

                                  Polyurethane - A synthetic resin used to formulate durable varnishes.

                                  Polyurethane Finish - An exceptionally hard and wear-resistance varnish noted for its overall balance of high performance properties including durability and abrasion resistance and household chemical resistance.

                                  Pores - Cell-like cavities that characterize the grain of the wood.

                                  R

                                  Run - A finish defect resulting from too much finish on a vertical or tilted surface.

                                  S

                                  Shellac - A varnish made by dissolving lac (a natural resin) in denatured alcohol.

                                  Softwood - Wood that comes from trees that bear needles such as pine and fir.

                                  Solvent - Any liquid that can be used to dissolve other substances. The most common solvents in wood finishing are water, mineral spirits, denatured alcohol, acetone, turpentine, and toluene.

                                  Spar Urethane - A durable varnish formulated for exterior use; it remains slightly softer and more flexible than interior varnish allowing it to expand and contract with changing weather conditions.

                                  Stain - Any of several products containing dyes and/or pigments to add color to wood.

                                  T

                                  Topcoat - A clear protective finish, such as polyurethane, that is applied over bare or stained wood.

                                  V

                                  Varnish - A preparation for coating wood surfaces, consisting of resins dissolved in oil, denatured alcohol or water.

                                  W

                                  Water-Based - A stain or clear protective finish comprised of resins dispersed, dissolved or emulsified in water.

                                  Wood Conditioner - A liquid applied prior to staining to obtain even stain penetration and uniform color. In the case of water-based products, wood conditioner also controls grain raise.

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